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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Bechoros 23


(a) Abaye asks on Rebbi Yirmiyah (who extends the principle ‘Matza Miyn es Miyno ve’Niy’ur’ to Tum’ah) from a Beraisa which discusses Kasher ashes of a Parah Adumah that became mixed with regular ashes.
What problem is the Tana discussing?

(b) The Tana rules that we go after the majority.
What do we ask from there (based on Tum’as Masa) on Rebbi Yirmiyah?

(c) In answer, Rav Dimi cites Rebbi Yossi b’Rebbi Chanina.
How does Rebbi Yossi b’Rebbi Chanina qualify the Mishnah’s ruling?

(a) Abaye queries Rebbi Yossi b’Rebbi Chanina however, from a statement by Rav Chisda, who maintains that whereas Neveilah becomes Bateil in Shechutah, Shechutah does not become Bateil in Neveilah.
Why not?

(b) Why is that? Surely Shechutah can become Tamei by touching a Sheretz?

(a) How, on the other hand, is it possible for Neveilah to shed its Tum’ah, like Shechutah?

(b) Why does this create a problem with Rebbi Yossi b’Rebbi Chanina (and Rebbi Yirmiyah)?

(c) We counter this by quoting a Beraisa cited by Rebbi Chiya ‘Neveilah u’ Shechutah Beteilos Zu ba’Zu’.
What does Rebbi Yossi b’Rebbi Chanina now say about that?

(d) How did Rav Dimi respond, when Abaye queried Rebbi Yirmiyah from Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov in our Mishnah ‘Beheimah Gasah she’Shaf’ah Chararas Dam, Harei Zu Tikaver’, on which Rebbi Chiya cited a Beraisa ‘Einah Metam’ah Lo be’Maga *ve’Lo be’Masa*’?

(a) We reconcile Rebbi Yirmiyah however, with the Beraisa, according to bar Pada, who draws a distinction between Tum’ah Chamurah and Tum’ah Kalah.
What is ‘Tum’ah ...
  1. ... Chamurah’?
  2. ... Kalah’?
(b) What does bar Pada mean when he says ‘Tum’ah ...
  1. ... Chamurah ad le’Ger’?
  2. ... Kalah ad le’Kelev’?
(c) We cannot however, reconcile him with Rebbi Yochanan.
What does Rebbi Yochanan say?

(d) What is then the problem?

Answers to questions



(a) What does bar Pada learn from the Pasuk in Re’ei “Lo Sochlu Kol Neveilah, la’Ger ...”?

(b) What does Rebbi Yochanan learn from there?

(c) What does bar Pada say to that?

(a) Again in connection with Rebbi Chiya’s Beraisa (‘Einah Metam’ah Lo be’ Maga ve’Lo be’Masa’), what problem do we have with Rebbi Yochanan, who attributed it to Bitul be’Rov, based on what we just said in Rebbi Yochanan?

(b) How do we answer that? In what way is a Chararas Dam fit for a Ger?

(a) Rebbi Eliezer in a Mishnah in Machshirin states that Tahor brine belonging to an Am ha’Aretz with which one performed Hashakah, and into which a little water fell, is Tamei.
What does Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah extrapolate from there?

(b) So why is it Tamei?

(c) How will Abaye (who does not hold of ‘Matza Miyn es Miyno, ve’Niy’ur’) explain it?

(a) On what basis do we ask that even if he added a little less than a half water, it ought to be Tamei?

(b) In the first answer we amend Rav Nachman’s statement to ‘ad Palga’. What is the second answer? In what way is this two de’Rabbanans?

(a) What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in our Mishnah say about someone who purchases a feeding animal from a Nochri?

(b) Why might it be possible for the animal not to have given birth before (and for the baby to be the child of another animal), in spite of the fact that it has milk?

(c) And what does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel then say about someone who enters his herd and finds both the animals that have given birth for the first time, and those that have not, all feeding babies? What do we not suspect?

(a) What did Rav Sheishes say when he heard Rav comment that the Mishnahs throughout this Perek are Halachah, except for those that contain a Machlokes?

(b) Rav’s main statement cannot be referring to the first Mishnah (‘ha’Loke’ ach Beheimah min ha’Akum, ve’Eino Yode’a Im Bichrah ... ’) where Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva argue, nor the last one, where Akavya ben Mahalalel and the Rabbanan argue.
Why can it have not been referring to ...

  1. ... the previous Mishnah (‘Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov Omer Beheimah Gasah she’Shaf’ah Chararas Dam ... ‘)? What does ‘Kav ve’Naki’ mean?
  2. ... the current Mishnah of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel?
  3. ... the next Mishnah of Rebbi Yossi ben ha’Meshulam”?
(c) We answer that in fact, Rav is referring to our Mishnah, despite the fact that the Rabbanan argue with Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in a Beraisa.
Why is there no problem with that? What is Rav coming to teach us?

(d) Having concluded that Rav is referring to our Mishnah, why did he then find it necessary to rule like Rebbi Yossi ben ha’Meshulam in the next Mishnah?

Answers to questions

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