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Bechoros 4

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Gemara 4a [line 13]:
The words "Kedushas Shel Yisrael"
should be "Kedushasan Shel Yisrael"

[2] Rashi 4a DH b'Feter Rechem:
The words "Iy Mashkechinan"
should be "v'Iy Mashkechinan"

[3] Gemara 4b [line 42]:
The words "uvi'Chenisasan Yisrael la'Aretz"
should be "uvi'Chenisasan la'Aretz"
(YA'AVETZ; or "uvi'Chenisas Yisrael la'Aretz")

1) [line 20] D'HAVAH LEI SEH D'AFKAH, LIPKA - a Levi, who had a lamb which exempted a firstborn donkey of a Yisrael, should have his own firstborn donkey exempted

*2*) [line 28] V'AHARON ... LO LIPAKA - and Aharon, who was not counted among the Levi'im, should not have his Peter Chamor exempted

3) [line 33] B'ESRIM V'ARBA'AH MEKOMOS NIKRE'U KOHANIM LEVIYIM - there are twenty-four places in the Tanach where Kohanim are called Leviyim. The Kohanim actually descend from the tribe of Levi. RASHI (Chulin 24b) suggests that they were called "Leviyim" because they "serve" in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and the word "Levi" also means "to serve," as in the verse "v'Yilavu Alecha v'Yesharsucha" - "and they will be joined to you and will serve you" (Bamidbar 18:2). See Insights to Chulin 24b for a discussion of these 24 instances.


4) [line 2] MI'MAI DEB'SEH - from where do know that the Peter Chamor of a Yisrael was redeemed by the lamb of a Levi and not by his donkey

5) [line 24] KADSHU BECHOROS BA'MIDBAR - all laws of Bechor applied to the firstborns that were born while Benei Yisrael were in the desert (Bechor Adam, Bechor Behemah Tehorah, and Bechor Behemah Teme'ah)

6) [line 32] D'LO PASIK KEDUSHASAIHU - there was no span of time during which the sanctification of the firstborn was interrupted

7) [line 37] U'MINAH - from that Beraisa itself I can bring an opposite proof

8a) [line 41] CHOVOS B'VAMAH LO KAROV - even during the time period when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on a Bamah (an altar which is not situated in the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash), obligatory sacrifices were not allowed to be brought on a Bamah.

(a) BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built, there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah; see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).
(b) BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov, and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed; see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c) BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.
(d) MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Rabah 11).
(e) BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach), also know as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Sukah 45:15.)

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