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Sources appear below (in Hebrew)
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will be given by Hagaon Rav Dov Zupnik
followed by some basic material on the subject, in English
PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR - Beis Din (specifically, the Sanhedrin) ruled [to permit the Jewish People] to transgress one of the Mitzvos written in the Torah
(a) The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) is obligated to bring a Korban in the following instance. If they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, instructed the Jewish people to act according to their ruling and the people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based upon this ruling. The sages bring twelve young bulls as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied upon the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring young bulls as Korbenos Olah and goats as Korbenos Chatas, one of each for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b) The blood of these bulls is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The remains of the bulls (including the meat and parts that are not sacrificed) are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:13-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)
KORBAN CHATAS - The sin offering
(a) If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to Kares b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to bring a Korban Chatas. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep. Since it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim (the highest sanctity of sacrifices), it may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah) and confesses his sin.
(b) The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures:
1. SHECHITAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah north of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen slaughters the animal, making sure to cut two Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus).
2. KABALAS HA'DAM - A Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil. The Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach) are removed from the animal.
3. HOLACHAH - The Kohen walks with the blood up to the top of the Mizbe'ach.
4. NESINAS HA'DAM - Using his finger, the Kohen applies some of the blood to each of the four Keranos of the Mizbe'ach.
5. HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - The Eimurim are cast into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
(c) The Kohanim eat the rest of the Chatas Behemah in the Azarah.
(d) When a Korban Par He'elem Davar is brought, the individuals who sinned are exempt from offering a Korban Chatas.
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Sources appear below (in Hebrew)