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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Bechoros 21


(a) We just cited Rebbi Shimon in the Beraisa, who once witnessed a case, where the owner placed all twelve animals in the pen within the year that the first three babies were born.
What does the Tana Kama then hold?

(b) Again, we connect this Machlokes to Ze’iri’s statement.
What then, is the case?

(c) And what is then the basis of their Machlokes?

(d) Like before, we offer the alternative that both Tana’im hold like Ze’ iri, and they argue over whether an animal can give birth within the five month pregnancy period (Rebbi Shimon) or not (the Tana Kama).
What is the second alternative to explain their Machlokes?

(a) There is however, a third alternative, even if both Tana’im also hold ‘Miktzas ha’Yom ke’Kulo’.
What is it?

(b) And we support this explanation with a Beraisa.
What does Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Amar Rebbi Shimon say about Mechusar Z’man?

(c) What is his source for this?

(d) From where do the Rabbanan that a Mechusar Z’man is not sent into the pen to be Ma’asered?

Answers to questions



(a) Rebbi Shimon prefers to learn Ma’aser (‘Mechusar Z’mano Nichnas le’Dir Lehis’aser’) from Bechor, because of the four similarities which they share (none of which apply to a Shelamim) ‘Go’el, Mum, Temuras, Achilah’. If ‘Go ’el’ means that they are not subject to Pidyon (even when they are blemished) and ‘Mum’, that Kedushah takes effect even on a blemished animal, what is the meaning of ...
  1. ... ‘Temuras’?
  2. ... ‘Achilah’?
(b) We counter this however, with ‘Pashut, Zachar, Kadosh, be’Matanos’, which Ma’aser has in common with Shelamim, but which do not pertain to Bechor.
If ‘Pashut’ means that they apply to an animal that is not a Bechor, and ‘Zachar’, that they apply to female animals as well as males, what is the meaning of ...
  1. ... ‘Kadosh’?
  2. ... ‘be’Matanos’?
(c) In that case, how does Rebbi Shimon learn Ma’aser from Bechor (regarding the Din of Mechusar Z’man)?
(a) According to Rav, ‘Tinuf’ means a deformed baby (caused by a closure of the womb).
How did Rav know that?

(b) What does Shmuel say?

(c) Under what condition does a ‘Tinuf’ exempt the baby that follows from the Bechorah?

(d) How does Rav Papa interpret ‘Chacham’ in this instance? Why is it not possible to accept the literal interpretation of the word?

(a) How long does it take for a human fetus to form inside its mother’s womb.
What does Rav Chisda now ask with regard to a baby fetus?

(b) What is the significance of this fact regarding ...

  1. ... a human fetus?
  2. ... an animal fetus?
(c) How did Rav Papa try to resolve Rav Chisda’s She’eilah from Ze’iri (‘Ein Tinuf Pachos mi’Sheloshim Yom’)?

(d) On what grounds did Abaye reject Rav Papa’s proof? What does Ze’iri really mean?

(a) Our Mishnah discusses an animal that one purchases from a Nochri (see Tif’eres Yisrael, 9).
According to Rav, if one purchased an animal S’tam from a Yisrael, one must assume that the next baby to which it gives birth is its first.
Why is that?

(b) Why does Shmuel hold that it is a Safek? Why is Rav’s argument not so clear-cut?

(c) What must the purchaser do, according to Shmuel?

(d) Rebbi Yochanan is the most lenient of all.
On what basis does he hold that it is Chulin?

(a) In the Beraisa that supports Rebbi Yochanan, what does the Tana say about someone who sells a baby animal without saying anything about having sold the mother that day? Why is that?

(b) How does this prove Rebbi Yochanan right?

(c) How will Rav and Shmuel reconcile their opinion (which does not assume that the seller will automatically inform the purchaser that the animal did not give birth within the first year) with the Beraisa?

(a) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov rules in our Mishnah that if a large animal emitted a cake of blood, it (the cake of blood) must be buried.
What does he say about the Bechorah?

(b) Rebbi Chiya learns in a Beraisa that the cake of blood is not Metamei be ’Maga or be’Masa.
Then why does it require burial?

(c) How will we reconcile this with the Mishnah in Chulin, which permits feeding the placenta of an animal giving birth for the first time, to the dogs? Why should the placenta not require burial for the same reason as the cake of blood according to Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov?

(d) Why could we not resolve the problem by dismissing our Mishnah before the S’tam Mishnah in Chulin?

(a) Seeing as the cake of blood is considered a V’lad, we ask, why is it not Metamei be’Maga and be’Masa.
What prompts us to ask this question? Who said that it is considered a V’lad?

(b) What does Rebbi Yochanan reply?

(c) And he equates Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov with Rebbi Shimon in a Mishnah in Nidah, which discusses a woman who miscarried a placenta.
Why does the Tana Kama declare the room in which the placenta is lying, Tamei?

(d) What does Rebbi Shimon say?

Answers to questions

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