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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Bechoros 4


(a) Our Mishnah exempts the Kohanim and Levi'im from the Bechorah, from a 'Kal-va'Chomer'. If, as we initially think, the Tana is referring to Pidyon Peter Chamor, what is the Kal-va'Chomer?

(b) According to the Pasuk in Bamidbar, who exempted Yisrael's Bechor ...

  1. ... Adam (in the desert)?
  2. ... Beheimah?
(c) Abaye therefore amends the Mishnah to read that on the one hand, the Kohanim and Levi'im are exempt from Pidyon ha'Ben, whilst on the other, their donkeys are exempt from a 'Kal-va'Chomer'.
Which 'Kal ve'Chomer'?
(a) Rava asks two questions on Abaye. One, that 'Patru' in the Mishnah implies that it is the Levi'im themselves who do the exempting, and not their lambs.
What is the other?

(b) The latter question is based on a Mishnah later in the Perek.
What does the Tana there say about the obligations of a Kohen and a Levi? What does he preclude from the P'tur of Pidyon ha'Ben and Pidyon Peter Chamor?

(c) How does Rava finally establish the Mishnah? If the Tana is not referring to Pidyon Peter Chamor, then to what is he referring?

(d) And what do we learn from the Pasuk in Korach "Ach Padoh Sifdeh es B'chor ha'Adam ve'es B'chor Beheimah ha'Temei'ah Tifdeh"?

(a) Rav Safra asks Abaye a number of Kashyos.
How does he query ...
  1. ... Abaye's own opinion that the 'Kal va'Chomer also pertains to the Levi'im's own donkeys? Which Leviyim's donkeys in the desert ought not to have been redeemed?
  2. ... both Abaye and Rava, who learn the 'Kal va'Chomer' on Bechor Adam?
    Which firstborn Leviyim ought not to have been redeemed in the desert?
  3. ... Rav Ada bar Ahavah, who exempts the Bechor of a Leviyah from the Bechorah?
(b) Regarding the second Kashya, how do we know that Abaye agrees with Rava with regard to Darshening the 'Kal-va'Chomer' on B'chor Adam?

(c) We answer the third Kashya with a statement of Mar b'rei de'Rav Yosef Amar Rava.
What did he say about 'Peter Rechem'? How does that answer the Kashya?

(a) Rava also asked on Aharon and the Kohanim.
How does the Beraisa explain the dot on "Aharon" in the Parshah of the census of the Levi'im in Bamidbar?

(b) What do we achieve with ...

  1. ... the Pasuk in Bamidbar "ha'Levi'im", comparing all the Levi'im?
  2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's statement, that the Kohanim are referred to as Leviyim in twenty-four places?
Answers to questions



(a) And from where do we learn that ...
  1. ... the P'tur of a B'chor Adam Kohen and Levi extends to nowadays as well?
  2. ... the donkeys belonging to Yisre'elim were redeemed by the *lambs* of the Leviyim (based on "Kesef" and "Seh")?
(b) What Pircha do we ask on the previous Limud (of Rav Chisda) of Pidyon with a lamb from Pidyon with money?

(c) So how do we learn it from the Hekesh that we quoted earlier "Ach Padoh Sifdeh es Bechor ha'Adam ve'es Bechor ha'Beheimah ha'Temei'ah Tifdeh"?

(a) According to Rebbi Chanina, one lamb of a ben Levi exempted many donkeys of a Yisrael.
Abaye proves this from the difference between the leftovers of B'chor Adam and those of Bechor Peter Chamor.
What was the difference between them?

(b) What does Abaye prove from there?

(c) How do we refute the suggestion that this was perhaps because there were so few firstborn donkeys that there were no leftovers? What does the Pasuk in Matos say that dismisses that?

(d) And how do we use the Pasuk in Bamidbar "ve'es Beheimas ha'Leviyim Tachas Behemtam" to counter the suggestion ...

  1. ... in spite of this, the Leviyim had far more ordinary lambs than that?
  2. ... "Beheimah" means many animals (like we commonly find)?
(e) Seeing as the Mishnah later rules 'u'Podin Bo Pe'amim Harbeh', as Rava comments, why do we need Rebbi Chanina's statement?
(a) Based on the Pasuk in Bo "Kadesh Li Kol Bechor", Rebbi Yochanan maintained that the Din Bechor applied to the firstborn that were born in the desert.
What did Resh Lakish say? What is his source?

(b) Rebbi Yochanan queried Resh Lakish from a Beraisa, which states that until the Mishkan was constructed, Bamos were permitted.
What does the Tana say about the Bechoros?

(c) How did Resh Lakish explain the Beraisa?

(a) How did Resh Lakish prove his point? Why must the Beraisa be referring to the firstborn who were born in Egypt?

(b) So what did Rebbi Yochanan think? Did he really believe that the first-born who were no more than a year old performed the Avodah?

(c) How did Resh Lakish counter that?

(a) Rebbi Yochanan also queried Resh Lakish from another Beraisa, which lists the various Korbanos that Yisrael brought on the day that the Mishkan was erected.
Which four Korbanos, besides Nedarim and Nedavos, does the Tana list?

(b) How did Resh Lakish ...

  1. ... counter Rebbi Yochanan's query from Bechoros?
  2. ... turn his answer into proof against Rebbi Yochanan?
(c) In the second Lashon, it is Resh Lakish who queries Rebbi Yochanan from the Lashon 'Oso ha'Yom' ... as we just explained.
What did Rebbi Yochanan answer?

(d) And the Chidush then lies in the inference - me'Oso ha'Yom va'Eilach, Me'ikara Lo'.
What is the Beraisa coming to teach us?

(a) Rebbi Yochanan asks on Resh Lakish from another Beraisa, which lists three places where Yisrael publicly sanctified the firstborn.
Which three places?

(b) The Tana quotes "Kadesh Li Kol Bechor" (Bo) in connection with Egypt, and "Ki Li Kol Bechor bi'Venei Yisrael" in connection with the desert. Which Pbasuk does he quote in connection with the sanctification of the Bechoros in Eretz Yisrael?

(c) How does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explain 'bi'Sheloshah Mekomos Kidshu Bechoros' according to Resh Lakish?

(d) How can Resh Lakish say 'Lo Kidshu', when he himself explained earlier that they did sanctify the Bechoros in Egypt?

(a) What do we prove from the Pasuk in Bamidbar "Pekod Kol Bechor Zachar ... "?

(b) So we amend the Machlokes. Rebbi Yochanan now holds that they sanctified the firstborn in the desert and did not stop doing so.
What does Resh Lakish say?

(c) If Resh Lakish learns his opinion from "Ve'hayah Ki Yevi'acha ... Ve'ha'avarta ... ", as we explained, on what basis does Rebbi Yochanan disagree?

(d) And he interprets the Pasuk like the Beraisa of de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael. How does he explain "Ve'hayah Ki Yevi'acha ... Ve'ha'avarta ... "? What is the Pasuk coming to teach us?

Answers to questions

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