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Bechoros 25

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Gemara 25a [line 46]:
The words "she'Lo Yazizu Es Mekomo"
should be changed as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #8

[2] Gemara 25b [line 7]:
The words "mi'Chelal d'Asar"
should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2

[3] Gemara [line 46]:
The words "d'Badku Lan"
should be "d'Badki Lan"

[4] Rashi 25b DH Es she'Nir'eh:
The words "v'Eino Nir'eh keshe'Piresh mi'Menah"
should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14

[5] Rashi DH v'Rebbi Yehudah:
The words "*umid'Rabanan* b'Shachtu"
should be "*umidel'Rabanan* b'Shachtu"

1) [line 2] MESOCHRAYA D'NAZYASA - the cloth used to plug the spigot on a barrel

2) [line 3] LA'HADUKEI - to tighten or squeeze [by squeezing the cloth plug into the barrel]

3) [line 5] PESIK REISHEI V'LO YAMUS - An act which will certainly result in a forbidden Melachah being unintentionally performed on Shabbos or Yom Tov is called a Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus (literally, "[can one] cut off the head [of an animal] and it will not die?!"). See Background to Bechoros 24:6.

4) [line 12] KEL'ACHAR YAD - literally, "like with the back of the hand"; doing a Melachah on Yom Tov is not forbidden [Min ha'Torah] when done in a manner in which the Melachah is not normally done

*5*) [line 12] OKER DAVAR MI'GIDULO KEL'ACHAR YAD - uprooting something (such as hair) from its source of growth in an unusual manner is permissible only when (a) one does not have intention to uproot, or (b) one does have intention to uproot but he does it for the sake of a Mitzvah (such as Shechitah) (TOSFOS 24b DH v'Hainu)

6) [line 14] KANAF - a large wing feather

7a) [line 14] HA'KOTMO - one who cuts off or clips [the tip of a feather of a bird]
b) [line 14] HA'MORTO - one who plucks the down [the fine hair along the shafts of the bird's feathers] off the root of the feather

*8*) [line 15] TOLESH CHAYAV MISHUM GOZEZ - one who plucks a feather is liable for transgressing the Melachah of Gozez, shearing. This proves that the act of Tolesh, plucking hair, is considered Gozez, shearing, unlike the view of Rav. (TOSFOS (DH v'Amar) points out that even though we cannot compare the laws of Shabbos to the laws of Bechor, perhaps the Gemara here is asking how plucking hair by hand can be considered kel'Achar Yad, when the Beraisa clearly says that one is Chayav for the act.)

9) [line 16] MECHATECH - cutting [a hide] to a specific size (this is an Av Melachah)

10) [line 16] MEMACHEK - scraping smooth [a hide] (this is an Av Melachah)

11) [line 20] SHTEI SE'AROS - two hairs of a Parah Adumah that are not red (but are completely black) invalidate the cow from being used as a Parah Adumah; if the hairs, however, are red at their base but black on top, the Parah Adumah may be used (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes (Bamidbar 19:1-22). Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah (Bamidbar 19:2).
(b) A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Performing another action while slaughtering the Parah Adumah, such as cutting a gourd, invalidates the Parah (Chulin 32a, SIFREI Chukas 19:3).
(c) Sereifas ha'Parah (burning the cow) is also performed on Har ha'Zeisim. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool, are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:6).
(d) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

*12*) [line 39] LO SHANU ELA B'YAD - it was not taught [that it is permissible] except when done by hand (since Tolesh, uprooting, is not Gozez, shearing, and shearing is done only with a utensil)

*13*) [last line] V'ACHAR KACH SHACHTU - wool that was removed from a Bechor after it was slaughtered is permitted to be used (and so, too, the meat and hide may be used); if it was removed after the animal died (without being slaughtered), it is forbidden to be used and must be buried. If the wool was removed *before* it was slaughtered or before it died, it is permitted mid'Oraisa. The Tana'im of the Mishnah argue whether the Rabanan permitted it as well.


14) [line 5] TZEMER HA'MEDULDAL - wool that was detached from the hide but is still entangled in the animal's wool

15) [line 11] BESHE'HITIRO MUMCHEH - when the Mumcheh (the expert authority) permitted the Bechor; the Halachah requires that a Mumcheh examine any blemish that appears on a Bechor, and by his word (and his word only) will the Bechor be declared permitted or prohibited to be eaten

16) [line 15] YEVUKAR - it should be examined

17a) [line 22] MUM KAVU'A - a permanent blemish; such a Mum permanently invalidates a Bechor from being offered on the Mizbe'ach so that it may be used for personal purposes
b) [line 22] MUM OVER - a temporary blemish that will pass; such a Mum does not allow a Bechor to be slaughtered and eaten

18) [line 26] BAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI - foolish Babylonians
19) [line 27] MISHUM D'YASVI B'AR'A D'CHASHOCHA AMREI SHEMA'ASA DI'MECHASHCHAN - because they live in a dark land they say dark (incorrect) sayings. (Bavel is called a dark land because it is situated in a large valley; Rashi to Menachos 52a.) (When they do not know the true reason, they invent false explanations; Rashi to Pesachim 34b.)

*20*) [line 31] KOL DAVAR SHE'HAYAH B'CHEZKAS TUM'AH - any [field] that had an affirmed status of Tum'ah remains in that status until the source of the Tum'ah is identified (such as the bones in a Beis ha'Peras). Every section that one checks and does not find a bone is presumed to be Tahor, until one checks the entire field and finds no bone, in which case the Chezkas Tum'ah tells us that his checking was inexact and retroactively the entire field is considered to be Tamei. This is taught by the Mishnah in Nidah (9:5; 61a), which says: "A Tamei pile (i.e., with bones mixed in it) became mixed up with two Tahor piles. If they check one pile and find it to be Tahor, that pile is Tahor and the other two are considered Tamei. If they check two piles and find them to be Tahor, those two are Tahor and the third is Tamei. If they then check the third pile and find it to be Tahor as well -- all three are Tamei" [because there is a Chezkas Tum'ah that tells us that a Tamei pile is somewhere in the group].

21) [line 44] V'ITSI - and it healed
22) [line 47] D'MINAGCHEI A'HADADEI - since they gore each other with their horns

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