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Bechoros 22

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Gemara 22a [line 27]:
the words "mi'Beis ha'Peras *me'Eretz* ha'Amim
should be "mi'Beis ha'Peras *ume'Eretz* ha'Amim"
(as the RASH quotes it in Ohalos 2:3)

[2] Rashi 22a DH Pesichas:
should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10

[3] Rashi DH v'Tahor mi'Mah Nafshach:
the words "*u'Maya* Salka Lehu"
should be "*Maya* Salka Lehu"

[4] Rashi DH Mishum Hach:
the words "Batli Lehu b'Ruba" are the start of a new Dibur

[5] Rashi 22b DH Ta'aleh:
the words "u'Mishum *Gezeirah*"
should be "u'Mishum *Gezeilah*" (RASHASH and other Acharonim)

1a) [line 10] PESICHAS HA'KEVER - the opening of the womb, which enables the Tum'ah of a dead fetus to emerge from the womb and make everything in the house Tamei
b) [line 10] EIN LI'NEFALIM... AD SHE'YA'AGILU ROSH K'PIKAH - aborted fetuses are not Metamei through an open womb unless their heads are the size of a Pikah, i.e. until the embryo (on leaving the womb) shows a round head like a coil of wool

2) [line 13] REBBI, PARISH! - teacher, clarify what you just taught!

3a) [line 13] SHESI - the strings of the loom that run lengthwise, the warp
b) [line 14] EREV - the threads of the woof that run from side to side across the loom, which are thicker than the strings of the warp

4) [line 19] KI'PEREIDAH SHE'KORA'AS L'HATIL MEIMEHA V'NIR'EIS K'PIKAH MI'TOCH PIKAH - like a mule that bends over to urinate, revealing ringlike folds at the opening of its womb (lit. "it has the appearance of a coil emerging from a coil")

5) [line 24] SAKA'IN - sack-weavers
6) [line 27] GUSH - a clump of earth

7) [line 27] BEIS HA'PERAS
(a) Beis ha'Peras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Peras:

1. A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa.
2. A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 24b; RASH to Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well). 3. A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:
i. Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - ME'IRI ibid.].
ii. Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Teme'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAH of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)
iii. The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH to Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim -- see Vilna Ga'on to Choshen Mishpat 377:2)

(b) The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Peras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah *spreads* (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are *broken* (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Peras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's *feet* (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.
(c) In the first type of Beis ha'Peras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH to Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.

9) [line 29] CHOSAM HA'MARTZUFIN - the clay seal of bags
10) [line 29] V'YESHNO B'TZAD HA'ELYON SHEL MEGUFAS HE'CHAVIS HA'LACHMIS - [a ball that size] can be found on the upper side of the lids of jugs from Beis Lechem

11) [line 31] TZIR - fish brine (which contains water)

12) [line 32] MASHIKO - he dips it in a Mikvah *connecting* the water in the brine with the water of the Mikvah (HASHAKAH)
(a) When one sinks a container containing water (or snow) that is Tamei into a valid Mikvah such that the water of the Mikvah flows over the rim of the container and touches the water inside of the container, the water inside of the container becomes Tahor. By touching the waters of the Mikvah, the water of the container has become "attached" or "planted" in the Tahor waters of the Mikvah, making the water in the container Tahor as well. This can be compared to the manner in which seeds that are Tamei can become Tahor by being planted in the ground (RASHI to Beitzah 17a DH v'Shavin; Gemara Pesachim 34b).
(b) Hashakah in a Mikvah can only be Metaher water, not other foods or liquids. The reason for this is that when Tamei water is touched to waters of a Mikvah, since they are the same material, the former can be considered to be "planted in," i.e. fully attached to, the latter. Any other material cannot become one with the waters of the Mikvah, and therefore it cannot become Tahor through Hashakah (RASHI to Nidah 17a DH Nit'har).

*13*) [line 38] LI'KEDEIRAH - i.e., when the Tzir is added to water (being cooked in a pot)

14) [line 38] MATZA MIN ES MINO V'NEI'OR - it found its own kind and was aroused, i.e. the two similar elements in the mixture join and regain their property of Tum'ah since they are now the majority of the mixture


15) [line 1] TEIROM - a Se'ah shall be lifted out as Terumah
16) [line 2] V'SERAKEV - and it shall be left to rot
17) [line 3] TE'ACHEL NIKUDIM O KELAYOS - it shall be eaten dry or roasted so that it will not become Tamei (since food is not able to become Tamei unless it first becomes wet)

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