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Bechoros 17

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

Gemara [line 14]:
"ha'Kol bi'Chsav"
Rashi writes that these words should be omitted (see Insights)

1) [line 15] REISHIS HA'GEZ
(a) Every time a flock of sheep is shorn, it is a Mitzvas Aseh to give the first shearings to a Kohen, as stated in Devarim (18:4), "v'Reishis Gez Tzoncha Titen Lo." Although the Mishnah (Chulin 135a) states that this Mitzvah applies both in Eretz Yisrael and in Chutz la'Aretz, the Halachah follows the ruling of Rebbi Ila'i (ibid. 136b, Berachos 22a) who rules that the Mitzvah applies only in Eretz Yisrael (Rambam Hilchos Bikurim 10:1).
(b) The owner is obligated to give the first shearings to the Kohen only when a minimum amount of fleece is shorn from a minimum number of sheep. The minimum number of sheep is two according to Beis Shamai and five according to Beis Hillel. The Halachah follows Beis Hillel (Chulin 135a). The minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn from each of the five sheep is the amount of fleece that weighs a "Maneh u'Feras" (a Maneh and a half) according to Rebbi Dosa ben Harkinas (ibid.). (A Maneh equals one hundred silver Dinerin, each one of which occupies the volume of 96 grains of barley -- Kidushin 12a.) As such, the total minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn according to Rebbi Dosa is 750 silver Dinerin. According to the Rabanan, the weight of twelve Sela'im must be shorn from each sheep, for a total of 60 Sela'im (i.e. 240 Dinerin), according to Shmuel; the Halachah follows his opinion -- Chulin 137b. Rav argues with regard to the opinion of the Rabanan, claiming that even a total weight of 150 Dinerin of wool from all five animals is obligated in Reishis ha'Gez.
(c) After all of one's sheep are shorn, one must give to the Kohen one-sixtieth of all of the shearings, whether it is a lot or a little (as long as the minimum required amount is fulfilled, as mentioned above). When one gives the wool to the Kohanim, he must not give less than the weight of five Shekalim (ten Dinerin) of wool to each Kohen, which is the amount that suffices to make an Avner, the belt of the Bigdei Kehunah (Chulin 138a).

2) [line 17] TAYISH - a male goat

3) [line 17] CHOSHESHIN L'ZERA HA'AV - we consider the seed of father as a contributing factor
There is an argument among the Amora'im as to whether or not the species of the father of an animal has any bearing on its Halachic status. There are a number of ramifications to this argument, such as the law of "Oso v'Es Beno." If we reckon with the seed of the father, then the Mitzvah of "Oso Ve'es Beno" applies to a father and its child, as well as to a mother and its child, and it is forbidden to slaughter them both on the same day. If we do not reckon with the seed of the father, then the father and child may both be slaughtered on the same day.

4) [line 22] NIDMEH - an animal that has the appearance of a different species

5) [line 23] CHAZRA SEYUS LI'MEKOMAN - the characteristics of a sheep have returned to where they belong

6) [line 26] HA'MEYUCHAD U'VA MI'SHESHES YEMEI VEREISHIS - it has retained its original, unique status (among other species) from the day the world was created.

*7*) [line 28] HEICHAH D'NACHAS L'DAREI - where the change has gone down to another generation (RASHI; this translation is in accordance with the first interpretation of the argument between Rebbi Meir and the Rabanan, suggested by the Gemara earlier). Alt: where the characteristics have returned to a later generation (RABEINU GERSHOM; this follows the second interpretation suggested earlier).

*8*) [line 31] MAH PISHTAN SHE'LO NISHTANAH - flax never takes on the characteristics of another species (perhaps because Nidmeh only occurs naturally in the reproduction of animal species, and not plant species)

9) [line 36] HIDLAH HA'GEFEN AL GABEI TE'EINAH - if he suspended a vine over a fig tree

10) [line 37] HEIGE - a prickly shrub or tree
11) [line 41] IY EFSHAR L'TZAMTZEM - it is impossible that both babies were born simultaneously; consequently, one is a Bechor but we do not know which one (see Background to Bechoros 9:11)

12) [last line] MESHAMNIN BEINEIHEN - the Kohen takes the inferior of the two animals and the they split the difference in value (i.e. the fat, or Shuman) between the two animals. (This is the Gemara's original interpretation. The Gemara later explains it to mean that the difference in value (i.e. the fat, or Shuman) between the two animals is left in its place; that is, it remains the property of the Yisrael.)

13) [last line] YIR'EH AD SHE'YISTA'EV - it grazes until it develops a Mum, and is then eaten by its owner in accordance with the laws pertaining to the eating of a Bechor


*14*) [line 1] VEHA'SHENI YIR'EH V'CHAYAV B'MATANOS - the Mishnah begins a new point when it says that the animal is Chayav b'Matanos (Rebbi Meir, the author of the anonymous Mishnayos, is speaking)

15a) [line 5] EFSHAR L'TZAMTZEM BI'YEDEI SHAMAYIM - it is possible for natural (i.e., not intentionally planned) events to occur simultaneously
b) [line 6] BI'YEDEI ADAM - actions performed by humans with intent

16) [line 7] CHUT SHEL SIKRA CHOGRO BA'EMTZA - a red line girds it at its middle

17a) [line 8] DAMIM HA'ELYONIM - the blood of the Chatas Behemah and Olas ha'Of, which was put on the Mizbe'ach above the red line
b) [line 9] DAMIM HA'TACHTONIM - the blood of all the other Korbanos, which was put below the string

18) [line 11] D'MARVACH BAH PURTA - they drew a broad line
19) [line 13] CHALKO LI'SHENAYIM - if he split an oven made of pottery in two. a clay oven becomes Tahor only if it is broken to the extent that it does not retain a majority of its original size.

20) [line 16] YESH BO GUMOS - it has holes (and corresponding projections) where it was cracked, making it impossible to measure which is the larger of the two pieces

21) [line 16] MECHUVAN - exactly in the middle

22) [line 17] EGLOS (EGLAH ARUFAH) See Background to Bechoros 9:15.

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