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Bechoros 14

BECHOROS 12-15 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Gemara 14b [line 42]:
The words "Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis Lo Hayu bi'Chelal Ha'amadah
v'Ha'ararachah" are unnecessary, and from RASHI (DH Zo Divrei) it seems that
they did not appear in his text.

[2] Gemara 14b [line 43]:
"di'Tenan Rebbi Shimon Omer"
this is a quote from a Mishnah in Temurah 32a

[3] Rashi 14b DH Rak Kodashecha:
The words "d'Iy l'Ikar Hekdesh"
should be "d'Iy l'Ikar Mikdash"

1a) [line 1] MUM KAVU'A - a permanent blemish that disqualifies an animal from being brought as a sacrifice (see Background to Menachos 78:38)
b) [line 1] MUM OVER - a passing, temporary blemish (the animal may be brought as a sacrifice after the blemish heals)

2) [line 2] MATANOS - the gifts of Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah which are given to Kohanim (MATNOS KEHUNAH: ZERO'A LECHAYAYIM V'KEIVAH)
(a) Whenever a person slaughters cattle, sheep or goats (that are not Kodesh), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs] (Devarim 18:3). 1. The ZERO'A consists of the two upper sections of the right foreleg, until the shoulder blade; 2. The LECHAYAYIM consists of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue; 3. The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev and the curdled milk that it contains, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev and the curdled milk (Chulin 134b, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #506).
(b) Although one must give the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah to a Kohen, they may be eaten by a non-Kohen.

3) [line 3] L'HIGAZEZ ULE'HE'AVED - [they become Chulin to the extent that] they may be sheared and worked with

4) [line 4] HA'SHOCHATAN BA'CHUTZ, PATUR - if someone slaughters them outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash, he is exempt from Kares. This is because the Lav to slaughter Korbanos outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash only pertains to animals that are fit to be offered as sacrifices (SHECHUTEI CHUTZ)
The Torah obligates a person to bring to the Beis ha'Mikdash all Kodshim that are fit to be offered as sacrifices, as it states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Besides the Mitzvas Aseh, there is a Lav prohibiting slaughtering them outside of the Azarah ("Shechutei Chutz") and burning them or parts of them outside of the Azarah ("Ha'ala'as Chutz"). In addition, the Tana'im learn (Sanhedrin 34b) that Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood) of a sacrifice outside of the Azarah is also prohibited. The punishment for transgressing these prohibitions is Kares (ibid. 17:9; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #186), and the animal remains Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).

5) [line 4] V'EIN OSIN TEMURAH - if someone tries to exchange another animal with it, the other animal does not become Kodesh and is not offered as a sacrifice (TEMURAH)
(a) The Torah prohibits making a Temurah, which is a Chulin animal exchanged for an animal designated as a Korban in an attempt to transfer the Kedushas ha'Guf of the Korban onto a replacement Korban. The verse states, "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not Kodesh], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it will be Kodesh" (Vayikra 27:10). The CHINUCH explains that the reason for the prohibition of Temurah is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #351, #352). (For a definition of Kedushas ha'Guf as opposed to Kedushas Damim, see Background to Avodah Zarah 13:16:c-e.)
(b) For example, the Mishnah (Temurah 26b) teaches that a person can make a Temurah by taking two animals, one of which was designated as a Korban, and saying "Zo Tachas Zo" - "This [animal] is instead of this [animal]," or "Zo Temuras Zo" - "This is in place of this," or "Zo Chalifas Zo" - "This is in exchange for this." The second animal, or the Temurah, *usually* becomes a valid Korban. If it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).
(c) A person who intentionally makes a Temurah receives Malkus (lashes). Sometimes, even if a person makes a Temurah b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he receives Malkus (see Chart to Temurah 17a). (For a discussion of the difference between Temurah and Chilul (redemption), see Background to Bava Metzia 57:2.)

6) [line 5] IM MESU YIPADU - if they die, they may be redeemed
7) [line 12] IM MESU YIKAVRU - if they die, they must be buried (no benefit may be derived from them, for they may not be redeemed from Hekdesh)

8a) [line 17] KEDUSHAS BEDEK HA'BAYIS - objects dedicated to the property of the Mikdash, which have only Kedushas Damim (a consecration of their value) and no intrinsic sanctity
b) [line 19] KEDUSHAS DAMIM LA'MIZBE'ACH - objects which have only Kedushas Damim, since they are dedicated to be sold in order to bring an offering on the Mizbe'ach with their value
c) [line 19] KEDUSHAS HA'GUF LA'MIZBE'ACH - objects which have intrinsic sanctity, since they are dedicated to be brought as offerings on the Mizbe'ach

9) [line 22] D'I'ABAR V'ISYALID - that it became pregnant and gave birth


*10*) [line 5] TA'AMA SHE'LO YEHEI TAFEL CHAMUR MIN HA'IKAR - the only reason is so that the animal of secondary importance (the offspring of the sanctified animal) should not have more Kedushah than the main object (the sanctified animal itself)
We have learned already that the offspring of an animal with a Mum is redeemed without a Mum and has no Kedushas ha'Guf; the Gemara now wants to prove from the Beraisa that when someone consecrates Temimim for Kedushas Damim, they automatically receive Kedushas ha'Guf

11) [line 6] ZACHAR - ram
12) [line 9] BAMAS YACHID - an altar built by an individual for his personal sacrifices
13) [line 11] BI'SHE'AS HETER HA'BAMOS - at the time that it was permitted to erect a Bamah; i.e. when there was no Mishkan and no Beis ha'Mikdash

14) [line 13] BAMAH GEDOLAH - the public altar that was erected in Gilgal, Nov and Givon for public and private sacrifices
(a) BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built, there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).
(b) BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c) BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.
(d) MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).
(e) BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (Outer Mizbe'ach), also know as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Sukah 45:15.)

15) [line 25] "LO YACHALIFENU V'LO YAMIR OSO TOV B'RA O RA B'TOV; V'IM HAMER YAMIR BEHEMAH BI'VHEMAH, V'HAYAH HU U'SEMURASO YIHEYEH KODESH." - "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not Kodesh], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it will be Kodesh." (Vayikra 27:10)

16) [line 42] HA'AMADAH V'HA'ARACHAH
(a) The verses referring to a Korban that became unfit due to a Mum (blemish) state, "*v'He'emid* Es ha'Behemah Lifnei ha'Kohen, *v'He'erich* ha'Kohen Osah" - "He shall make the animal *stand* before the Kohen and the Kohen shall *appraise* it" (Vayikra 27:11-12). From here we learn that in order for an animal with a Mum to be appraised and redeemed, it must be alive. An animal that was slaughtered, for example, cannot be appraised and redeemed (Chulin 84a).
(b) For the opinions of the Rabanan and Rebbi Shimon with regard to Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah, see Charts to Temurah 32b, #8.

17) [line 43] DI'TENAN "REBBI SHIMON OMER 'KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS, IM MESU YIPADU'" - This is the entire quote from the Mishnah (Temurah 32a), from which we can deduce that Kodshei Mizbe'ach are in the category of Ha'amadah v'Ha'arachah; the following words ("u'Modeh Rebbi Shimon b'Va'al Mum Me'Ikaro") are from the words of Rav.

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