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Bechoros 12

BECHOROS 12-15 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Rashi 12a DH Ein Isur:
The words "Peter Chamor" are the end of the Dibur
The words "Chal Al Isur" are a new Dibur

[2] Rashi 12b DH Vadai Lo Siba'i Lach:
The words "v'Nimtza Zeh Koneh Chamor *b'Feiros Shevi'is*
she'Eino Ra'uy l'Achilah"
should be "v'Nimtza Zeh Koneh Chamor she'Eino Ra'uy l'Achilah
*b'Feiros Shevi'is*"

[3] Rashi 12b DH ha'Erchin b'Sha'atan:
The words "she'Amar Erki Alai"
should be "she'Amar Erko Alai" (RASHASH)

1) [line 2] KIL'AYIM - an animal that is a crossbreed between a goat and sheep

2) [line 2] KOY
There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to which animal Chazal mean when they refer to the "Koy." Some Tana'im rule that it is a crossbreed between certain species of goats and deer, while others rule that is an independent species (Chulin 80a). The Koy shows signs of being both a Behemah (a domesticated farm animal) and a Chayah (a non-farm animal). The Chelev (forbidden fat -- see Background to Chulin 5:15a) of a Behemah is prohibited and its blood does not need Kisuy ha'Dam (covering after ritual slaughter -- see previous entry), while the Chelev of a Chayah is not prohibited but its blood does need Kisuy ha'Dam.
(b) As a result, still other Tana'im rule that the status of a Koy is always in doubt (a Safek). This is usually the context in which the Gemara refers to a Koy, as an animal about which the Halachic status is uncertain. Because of this doubt, the Chelev of a Koy is prohibited and its blood requires Kisuy ha'Dam. (For additional Halachos regarding the Koy, see Bikurim 2:8-11)

3) [line 13] BEN PEKU'AH - an animal that is taken alive out of its slaughtered mother's womb.

4) [line 17] K'VISRA B'DIKULA - like meat in a pot
5) [line 17] RAHIT V'AZIL - it is running around
6) [line 24] NIDMEH - an animal that does not appear to be of the same species as its mother, i.e. a goat that has the appearance of a sheep or a sheep that has the appearance of a goat

*7*) [line 28] PARAH SHE'YALDAH MIN EZ - a cow that gave birth to a calf that has the appearance of a goat

*8*) [line 30] HA B'CHIL'AYIM NAMI PARKINAN - even if one parent is a goat and the other is a sheep, we can use the offspring for Pidyon, all the more so the offspring of two sheep that has the appearance of a goat; the Beraisa therefore seems superfluous

9) [line 44] SHE'YESH BO MIKTZAS SIMANIN - it has some markings of the category of animal to which its mother belongs

(a) Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is still forbidden to work with them ("Avodah") or to shear them ("Gizah"). The milk they produce is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being slaughtered (Bechoros 15b). Our Gemara shows that one may benefit from their blood, as learned from the verse in the previous entry.
(b) The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mukdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done to a Bechor (see Background to Chulin 17:39).

11) [line 48] KEIVAN D'LO TAFIS PIDYONO - since the Kedushah of Bechor is not transmitted to the animal with which it is redeemed


12) [line 2] BI'VEHEMAS SHEVI'IS - an animal that was bartered with produce grown during Shemitah; both the produce itself and the animal with which it was exchanged have Kedushas Shevi'is and must be eaten in accordance with the laws of Shevi'is (SHEVI'IS)
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that: 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the land that makes improvements.
(c) When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains Kadosh as well).
(d) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

13) [line 21] HEICHA D'MECHZAK LAN D'MIKRI - where it is ascertained that he is "called" a suspicious person regarding a Bechor; alt. where it is ascertained that it "happened" that he performed work with a Peter Chamor prior to its redemption (Rashi)

14) [line 34] ERCHIN (ERECH)
(a) An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8 (see below, (b)). It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.
(b) The Erech that the Torah specifies for children between the ages of one month and five years is five Shekalim for males and three Shekalim for femal es (Vayikra 27:6). For youths and young adults between the ages of five years and twenty years, the Erech that the Torah specifies is twenty Shekalim for males and ten Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:5). For adults between the ages of twenty years and sixty years, the Erech that the Torah specifies is fifty Shekalim for males and thirty Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:3-4). For adults over sixty years of age, the Erech that the Torah specifies is fifteen Shekalim for males and ten Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:7).

15) [line 34] B'SHA'ATAN - [the values of pledges of Erchin are calculated] according to the time at which the person made the vow

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